To evaluate the impact of patient counselling provided by community pharmacist on changes in glycemic control, knowledge about diabetes and its management and quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an urban area of Tirupati.80 patients were interviewed, of whom 60 subjects were included in the study. The literate and chronic diabetic patients were included in the study and illiterate, children below 12 years of age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and subjects with any other chronic disorders were excluded from the study. The subjects were interviewed and divided randomly into two groups. There were 30 subjects in the control group and 30 in the intervention group. The study protocol was explained to all the participants, and written informed consent was obtained from them. Before the initiation of the study, the subjects were interviewed for 20–40 min to educate them about diabetes. Subjects in the intervention group received continuous counseling and medical advice to improve their awareness about the disease and drugs. During the study period, the Diabetes Care Profile (a questionnaire developed by Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan) was performed to each subject. The intervention between visits was 3months. All the values are expressed in mean ± standard deviation. The intervention group showed better progress in the recovery of diabetics because of the continuous counseling and monitoring. There were significant changes in Diabetes Care Profile subscale scores in both the control and the intervention groups at the end of the study.The mean fasting blood glucose level in the intervention group decreased from 159.60±23.52mg% to 108.13±10.62mg% from base line to final interview where as control group did not show any statistically significant improvement till the end of the study, viz. 1.87 ± 1.06 to 2.9 ± 1.45 and 3.1 ± 0.7 to 1.53 ± 0.62. Similarly, the knowledge test score was found to be increased in the intervention group compared with the baseline values (8.47 ± 1.78 to 12.2 ± 1.38). At the end of the study period, the patients of the intervention group had very good glycemic control. Their health status and understanding of diabetes and its management were better.
Pain is the most common symptom and is associated with bad functional outcomes. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used drugs for years for management of pain and inflammation with good efficacy. To assess the Pain management using NSAIDs in Orthopedics Department of Vydehi Institute of Science and Research Centre, Bangalore. In this study, 80 cases were collected in which NSAIDs were administered for Pain treatment. The study was simple randomized prospective study which was carried out for a period of six months. The patients were collected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Here we found the effectiveness of Aceclofenac, Diclofenac which were mostly administered to patients in combination with Paracetamol. The gender, age of the patient, distribution of NSAIDs in IPD and OPD, type of analgesics prescribed, type of diagnosis, combination distribution and effectiveness of prescribed NSAIDs were reported. The results were analyzed. In the study period of six months, 80 orthopaedic cases were collected. Among 80 patients, it was observed that the maximum number 21 (26.25%) were in the age range of 18-28 years followed by 16 (20.00%) patients in the range of 59-68 years and study patients 36(45%) were male and 44(55%) were female patients. Among all prescriptions, 13 were Paracetamol, 17 were Diclofenac + Paracetamol, 5 were Aceclofenac alone, 8 were Diclofenac alone , 6 were Tramadol, 50 were Aceclofenac + Paracetamol. In prescriptions under study, 50 (62.5%) prescriptions were with Aceclofenac + Paracetamol combination and 17(21.25%) were with Diclofenac + Paracetamol combination. From the study results and discussion , it is shown that combination therapy of Aceclofenac + Paracetamol were more often prescribed than the Diclofenac + Paracetamol combination. Based on various parameters of the study and based on the results obtained before and after the treatment, it can be concluded that Aceclofenac in combination with Paracetamol showed better effectiveness than Diclofenac with Paracetamol.
P. Rihana Begum1* Ansu Susan Shaji2, Ivy Liz George2, Leena Maisur2, Suma. P2
REVIEW ON CURCUMIN’S BIOAVAILABILTY PROBLEMS AND PROMISES
This study describes the bioavailabilty problems of curcumin and its promises. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans but exhibit poor bioavailability. In the present study the polymer with well-defined mucoadhesive properties like carbopol 934 was used. Carbopol poloxamer gels of 1% curcumin was formulated with various absorption enhancers like polyethylene glycol, mannitol and sodium lauryl sulphate by cold method. Since curcumin is having bioavailability problem it has been formulated in gel form using absorption enhancers like polyethylene glycol, mannitol and sodium lauryl sulphate.
V. Prudhvi Raj*, Mogal Altaf, M. Niranjan Babu
ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ASPARAGUS GONOCLADOS BAKER IN HYPERLIPIDEMIA INDUCED MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Cardiovascular diseases remain the principal cause of death in both developed and the developing countries. The contributing factors for the growing cardiovascular risk are hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, physical inactivity and the use of tobacco. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ethanolic extract of root tubers of Asparagus gonoclados Baker against hyperlipidemia induced male wistar albino rats. The rats were continuously fed on 5% cholesterol diet for 3 months to induce hyperlipidemia. The effect of concurrent administration of ethanolic extract of Asparagus gonoclados Baker at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.wt. were given orally and observed for the plasma levels of TC, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant values were also measured. The body weight of rats was recorded on 0th, 14th and 28th day of test and standard treatment. The results showed a significant decrease in plasma TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL levels of animals treated with standard and test drugs in hyperlipidemia induced rats. Significant increase in antioxidant levels was also observed. The extract at both dose levels (250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) showed a significant (p<0.001) reversal of altered biochemical parameters and oxidative stress showing that Asparagus gonoclados Baker possessing antioxidant and Anti-hyperlipidemic activity
Amoxicillin is a semi-synthetic aminopenicillin, with a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, used as trihydrate in oral products. The trihydrate form is slightly soluble in water, and its stability in the solid state is possibly related to the effect of the water content and hygroscopic behavior. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) , tonsils (tonsillitis & tonsillopharyngitis), throat, larynx (laryngitis) , pharynx (pharyngitis), bronchi (bronchitis), lungs (pneumonia), urinary tract (UTI), skin and to treat gonorrhoea. Recent studies suggested that it can be used as prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis, in patients with prosthetic joint replacements and in dentistry. The renewed interest of the molecule has prompted a review of the salient facets of the drug.
V. Prudhvi Raj*, Dr. Subhashish Debnath, M. Niranjan Babu
THE TECHNOLOGIES USED FOR DEVELOPING ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS IN NANOPARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
Oral drug delivery remains the most preferred route for administration of various therapeutic agents. Recent advances in technology prompted researches and scientists to develop oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) with improved patient convenience and compliance. Formulation of a convenient dosage form for administration, by considering swallowing difficulty and poor patient compliance, leads to development of orally disintegrating tablets.Nanoparticles formulated as amorphous spheres show higher solubility than standard crystalline formulations, thus improving the poor aqueous solubility of the drug and hence its bioavailability. Conventional preparation methods are spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression, Moulding, and sublimation while new technologies have been developed for the production of Orodispersable tablets. This review depicts the various aspects of ODT formulation, superdisintegrants and technologies developed for ODT, along with various drugs explored, evaluation tests and marketed formulations in this field.
A. Deevan Paul, K. Kavitha, B. Shrivastava and Pankaj Sharma