Prodrug refers to a pharmacological inactive compound that is converted to an active drug by a metabolic biotransformation. It is observed that about 10% of the drugs approved worldwide is classified as prodrugs. They are designed in order to improve the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and/or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically potent compounds. This article describes the basic functional groups that are required to prodrug design, and highlights the major applications of the prodrug strategy, including the ability to improve oral absorption and aqueous solubility, increase lipophilicity, enhance active transport, as well as achieve site-selective delivery
Subhashis Debnath*, R. Sukesh, R. Pugahenthi
NANO-THERAPEUTIC AND NANO-IMAGING IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS – A REVIEW
The application of nanotechnology in areas of drug delivery and therapy (ie, nanotherapeutics) is envisioned to have a great impact on public health. The ability of nanotherapeutics to provide targeted drug delivery, to improve drug solubility, extend drug half-life, improve a drugs therapeutic index, and reduce drugs immunogenicity has resulted in the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases. A heart disease remains the major cause of death in males and females, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to improve patient treatment and survival. In this review, the clinical impact of cardiovascular disease and the pathophysiology of different subsets of the disease are described. Potential pathological targets for therapy are introduced and promising advances in nanotherapeutics cardiovascular applications involving liposomal platforms are presented
Chalcones are a class of natural open chain flavonoids that are linked by a three carbon spacer between two aromatic rings. Chemically, chalcones are 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones in which two aromatic rings are joined by a three carbon bridge having a cabonyl moiety and α,β unsaturation. The chemistry of chalcones has generated intensive scientific studies throughout the world. Especially interest has been focused on the synthesis and biological activities of chalcones. The aim of this review to give summary of methods for synthesis of chalcones and its activities. Both chalcones and their heterocyclic derivatives have a number of pharmacological activities such as anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, anticancer, ant mitotic, antileishmanial, anti-malarial, ant tubercular, antiviral etc. This review mainly focuses on recent efforts made on the synthesis of biologically active chalcone derivative and screening their pharmacological activity
D. Lavanya*, S. Charumathi , M. Niranjan babu.
ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM L. ON COMPLETE FREUND’S ADJUVANT INDUCED ARTHRITIC RAT MODEL
Rheumatism was one of the oldest known diseases of mankind affecting large population of the world. The greatest disadvantage in the presently available potent synthetic drugs lies in their toxicity, side effects and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. The present work was aimed at evaluating Antiarthritic activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. using 0.1ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) administered at planter surface of the left hind paw. The assessment of antiarthritic activity was done by estimating parameters such as paw volume, paw diameter along with serum biochemical marker levels, tissue antioxidants, radiological and histological examination of joints using standard operating procedures. The concurrent administration of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. showed a significant restoration of abnormal levels of various parameters and biochemical markers which was supported by radiological and histological examinations of joints indicating anti-arthritic activity of plant extract. The effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. was compared with standard drug, diclofenac sodium at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg b.wt.
G. Mallikarjuna*1, C. Kambagiri swamy2, V. Prabhakaran2, M. Niranjan Babu1
INITIATION & EVALUATION OF DRUG INFORMATION SERVICES IN & AROUND CHITTOOR DISTRICT
Drug information service (DIS) is the service that encompasses the activities of specially trained individuals to provide accurate, unbiased, factual information, primarily in response to patient-oriented problems occurred from the Health care teams. DIS is usually provided by pharmacists in academic institutes and hospitals via face-to-face communication, letter, telephone, fax and e-mail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of drug information services provided in Chittoor district. It is a Prospective interventional study to extend the drug information services in & around govt district head quarters Hospital Chittoor. The study is planned over a 6 months period from Feb 2016 to July 2016. The quality of drug information services provided was assessed Using feedback questionnaires and guidelines from the DSE/WHO seminar respectively. Majority of the enquirers were the nurses (39.34%) and physicians (34.34%), from the primary, secondary, tertiary hospitals. Most of the questions were asked by direct access (92%). Answers to queries were most often needed one day (74%) and in most cases was answered printed material (71.5%). Most frequently asked questions were about adverse drug reactions (50.28%) followed by drug therapy (16.28%) and the purpose of the queries to update the knowledge (49.7%). Assessment of the feedback questionnaire indicated that majority of the enquirers (31.6%) found the quality of the service provided by the centre to be satisfactory. The study concludes drug information service provided by the centre improves to the need of healthcare professionals towards better patient care and to update knowledge. Upon evaluation of the feedback questionnaires, it was found that the quality of the services provided by the centre was appreciated by majority of its users.
Narasimhulu B*, Vinodh Navuluri, Shubhankar Saha, Niranjan Babu M