Author:A. Deevan Paul, K. Kavitha, B. Shrivastava and Pankaj Sharma
Abstract:Oral drug delivery remains the most preferred route for administration of various therapeutic agents. Recent advances in technology prompted researches and scientists to develop oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) with improved patient convenience and compliance. Formulation of a convenient dosage form for administration, by considering swallowing difficulty and poor patient compliance, leads to development of orally disintegrating tablets.Nanoparticles formulated as amorphous spheres show higher solubility than standard crystalline formulations, thus improving the poor aqueous solubility of the drug and hence its bioavailability. Conventional preparation methods are spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression, Moulding, and sublimation while new technologies have been developed for the production of Orodispersable tablets. This review depicts the various aspects of ODT formulation, superdisintegrants and technologies developed for ODT, along with various drugs explored, evaluation tests and marketed formulations in this field.
Author:V. Prudhvi Raj*, Dr. Subhashish Debnath, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:Amoxicillin is a semi-synthetic aminopenicillin, with a broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, used as trihydrate in oral products. The trihydrate form is slightly soluble in water, and its stability in the solid state is possibly related to the effect of the water content and hygroscopic behavior. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) , tonsils (tonsillitis & tonsillopharyngitis), throat, larynx (laryngitis) , pharynx (pharyngitis), bronchi (bronchitis), lungs (pneumonia), urinary tract (UTI), skin and to treat gonorrhoea. Recent studies suggested that it can be used as prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis, in patients with prosthetic joint replacements and in dentistry. The renewed interest of the molecule has prompted a review of the salient facets of the drug.
Author:G.Mallikarjuna*1, N.Jahnavi2, V.Prabhakaran2, M.Niranjan Babu1
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases remain the principal cause of death in both developed and the developing countries. The contributing factors for the growing cardiovascular risk are hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, physical inactivity and the use of tobacco. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ethanolic extract of root tubers of Asparagus gonoclados Baker against hyperlipidemia induced male wistar albino rats. The rats were continuously fed on 5% cholesterol diet for 3 months to induce hyperlipidemia. The effect of concurrent administration of ethanolic extract of Asparagus gonoclados Baker at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg b.wt. were given orally and observed for the plasma levels of TC, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant values were also measured. The body weight of rats was recorded on 0th, 14th and 28th day of test and standard treatment. The results showed a significant decrease in plasma TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL levels of animals treated with standard and test drugs in hyperlipidemia induced rats. Significant increase in antioxidant levels was also observed. The extract at both dose levels (250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.wt.) showed a significant (p<0.001) reversal of altered biochemical parameters and oxidative stress showing that Asparagus gonoclados Baker possessing antioxidant and Anti-hyperlipidemic activity
Author:V. Prudhvi Raj*, Mogal Altaf, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:This study describes the bioavailabilty problems of curcumin and its promises. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans but exhibit poor bioavailability. In the present study the polymer with well-defined mucoadhesive properties like carbopol 934 was used. Carbopol poloxamer gels of 1% curcumin was formulated with various absorption enhancers like polyethylene glycol, mannitol and sodium lauryl sulphate by cold method. Since curcumin is having bioavailability problem it has been formulated in gel form using absorption enhancers like polyethylene glycol, mannitol and sodium lauryl sulphate.
Author:P. Rihana Begum1* Ansu Susan Shaji2, Ivy Liz George2, Leena Maisur2, Suma. P2
Abstract:Pain is the most common symptom and is associated with bad functional outcomes. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most commonly used drugs for years for management of pain and inflammation with good efficacy. To assess the Pain management using NSAIDs in Orthopedics Department of Vydehi Institute of Science and Research Centre, Bangalore. In this study, 80 cases were collected in which NSAIDs were administered for Pain treatment. The study was simple randomized prospective study which was carried out for a period of six months. The patients were collected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Here we found the effectiveness of Aceclofenac, Diclofenac which were mostly administered to patients in combination with Paracetamol. The gender, age of the patient, distribution of NSAIDs in IPD and OPD, type of analgesics prescribed, type of diagnosis, combination distribution and effectiveness of prescribed NSAIDs were reported. The results were analyzed. In the study period of six months, 80 orthopaedic cases were collected. Among 80 patients, it was observed that the maximum number 21 (26.25%) were in the age range of 18-28 years followed by 16 (20.00%) patients in the range of 59-68 years and study patients 36(45%) were male and 44(55%) were female patients. Among all prescriptions, 13 were Paracetamol, 17 were Diclofenac + Paracetamol, 5 were Aceclofenac alone, 8 were Diclofenac alone , 6 were Tramadol, 50 were Aceclofenac + Paracetamol. In prescriptions under study, 50 (62.5%) prescriptions were with Aceclofenac + Paracetamol combination and 17(21.25%) were with Diclofenac + Paracetamol combination. From the study results and discussion , it is shown that combination therapy of Aceclofenac + Paracetamol were more often prescribed than the Diclofenac + Paracetamol combination. Based on various parameters of the study and based on the results obtained before and after the treatment, it can be concluded that Aceclofenac in combination with Paracetamol showed better effectiveness than Diclofenac with Paracetamol.
Author:Venkatesan Ramar*1, Himabindhu Pachipala1, Shaik Peddasubahan, Niranjan Babu. M1
Abstract:To evaluate the impact of patient counselling provided by community pharmacist on changes in glycemic control, knowledge about diabetes and its management and quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an urban area of Tirupati.80 patients were interviewed, of whom 60 subjects were included in the study. The literate and chronic diabetic patients were included in the study and illiterate, children below 12 years of age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and subjects with any other chronic disorders were excluded from the study. The subjects were interviewed and divided randomly into two groups. There were 30 subjects in the control group and 30 in the intervention group. The study protocol was explained to all the participants, and written informed consent was obtained from them. Before the initiation of the study, the subjects were interviewed for 20–40 min to educate them about diabetes. Subjects in the intervention group received continuous counseling and medical advice to improve their awareness about the disease and drugs. During the study period, the Diabetes Care Profile (a questionnaire developed by Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan) was performed to each subject. The intervention between visits was 3months. All the values are expressed in mean ± standard deviation. The intervention group showed better progress in the recovery of diabetics because of the continuous counseling and monitoring. There were significant changes in Diabetes Care Profile subscale scores in both the control and the intervention groups at the end of the study.The mean fasting blood glucose level in the intervention group decreased from 159.60±23.52mg% to 108.13±10.62mg% from base line to final interview where as control group did not show any statistically significant improvement till the end of the study, viz. 1.87 ± 1.06 to 2.9 ± 1.45 and 3.1 ± 0.7 to 1.53 ± 0.62. Similarly, the knowledge test score was found to be increased in the intervention group compared with the baseline values (8.47 ± 1.78 to 12.2 ± 1.38). At the end of the study period, the patients of the intervention group had very good glycemic control. Their health status and understanding of diabetes and its management were better.
Author:Vineela Ruth Madhuri P*1, S. Sai Swathi1, S. Rubesh Kumar1, D. Lavanya1, Chitikela P Pulliah2, M. Niranjan Babu1
Abstract:Zidovudine shows therapeutic value against various viral infections. The present study is to determine the possibility of developing fingerprint characteristic of Zidovudine by using different solvent systems such as coconut oil, ground nut oil, mustard oil, olive oil, sesame oil and soya bean oil for the preparation of different dosage forms. Identification of functional groups frequencies with the help of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been made for the solvent suitability of Zidovudine with suitable solvent were studied for the preparation of emulsion as it is sparingly soluble in water. From FTIR (400 cm‾1 to 4000 cm‾1 region) spectroscopic studies were carried out and spectrum were used for identification for invitro drug and solvents compatibility study. According to this study only one solvent i.e., soya bean oil was suitable with Zidovudine and all other solvents such as coconut oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, olive oil and sesame oil were not suitable due to the additional peaks observed in the spectrum combination (2083.71 cm-1, 2062.74 cm-1, 2081.78 cm-1, 2077.92 cm-1, 2081.78 cm-1).
Author:Sourav De*1, Subhasis Banerjee2, M. Niranjan Babu1
Abstract:Tetralone ring system has drawn an immense attention in the field of drug discovery by virtue of their wide applications as analgesic, antidepressant, antifungal and antibacterial. The wide range of its therapeutic application paved the way to the researchers to introduce this nucleus frequently in diversified molecular skeleton to generate novel compounds with high therapeutic value. In this case, we have tried to present various therapeutic applications, which have already been demystified by the researchers. The study may prompt the researcher to generate scaffolds of highest therapeutic efficacy considering the importance of tetralone nucleus.
Author:V. Prudhvi Raj*, P. Hema Kumar, P. Rajasekhar, K. Venkataramana G
Abstract:Gold nanoparticle technology has a promising role in the advancement of cancer treatment. The versatile surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles allows them to be coated with small molecules, polymers, and biological recognition molecules, thereby extending their range of application. With tumor-targeting delivery vectors becoming smaller, the ability to by-pass the natural barriers and obstacles of the body becomes more probable. To increase specificity and likelihood of drug delivery, tumor specific ligands may be grafted onto the particles to circulate throughout the tumor without being redistributed into the body. This review is about synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its usage in the treatment of cancer.
Author:FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF APREPITANT ORAL DISSOLVING FILMS
Abstract:The objective of the present research was to prepare oral dissolving films (ODF) of Aprepitant. Different combinations of polymers and plasticizers were evaluated for optimizing the physical properties and the in vitro drug release. Initially eleven placebo formulations were prepared by using glycerol as plasticizer and another eleven formulations were prepared by using PEG 400 as plasticizer. The placebo films were subjected to various evaluation tests and based on the results; drug is incorporated into the optimized formulations. Drug loaded films were prepared and subjected to various physicochemical evaluations and in vitro dissolution studies. The drug-polymer incompatibility was ruled out by FTIR studies. From the FTIR studies, the drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed. All the films were shown satisfactory results which complies with official limits. The film prepared using HPMC E15 (F4) with 1:1 ratio of drug and polymer with glycerol as plasticizer were considered to have acceptable physical properties, disintegration time of below 60 secs and > 85% of drug release within 5 minutes and hence were considered as optimum.
Author:M. Hari Krishna*, Subhashis Debnath, Mogal Althaf, P. Mahipal
Abstract:This study reports the growth and classification of floating in-situ gel drug delivery system contain natural polymers was developed for stomach based specific delivery of Famotidine. Formulation and evaluation of in-situ gel by means of different concentrations of sodium alginate, Methylparaben and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC). Very little deliberation of divalent action was required for formulation. Optimization methods have been applied in the current study to study systemically the influence of method variables on the formulation of dosage forms. These designs provide an efficient means for studying the result of various parameters on the dependent relative variables. Thus, factorial designs were functional to optimize the formulation and development of mucoadhesive microspheres and in-situ gel. Furthermore, a continuous discharge of the drug, Famotidine is achievable from the gel vehicle over a period of at least 8 hours. so we may wrap up that sodium alginate may be a helpful oral sustained discharge means of transport to improve patient observance and bioavailability. Different formulation variables were considered and optimized to reach the desired muco-adhesive or floating properties and discharge profiles. The stability of the formulations was evaluated after 3 months of storage space at accelerated constancy and solidity conditions
Author:Muthu K Kathiravan1*, Aparna S Chothe2, Amol B Salake2, Rajeshwar R Jalnapurkar2
Abstract:In this paper the naturally occurring flavonoids were subjected to 2D, 3D QSAR studies and generated a predictive model. The best linear model constructed from 25 molecular structures incorporated important descriptors such as topological, ring size, electrostatic, steric. The thorough analysis of the model from QSAR model suggests that the activity depends on the four key parameters i.e., two contributing positively and two contributing negatively. However considering all the above descriptors we have designed a novel series of molecules using Lead grow tool of V-Life MDS. The predicted activity was found to be better than the most active compound from selected series. The designed molecules possess all the positively contributing descriptors obtained from predicted models confirming correctness of the method.
Author:Prasanna Kumar Kar*, P. Mahipal, P. Rajasekhar
Abstract:The ethnomedicinal plants of Sikkim – Himalayas are claimed for there high medicinal values. In this current experiment, three plants and their isolated compound obtained from the respective plant were subjected to hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic and normal rats. The result showed that one plant, Urtica parviflora and its respective isolated compound – I is having prominent hypoglycemic activity as compared to others.
Author:Naga Varalakshmi. T*1, Chitra. V2, Firoz. SK2
Abstract:Hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Jasminum grandiflorum was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats. The leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against D – Galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels. In hepatoprotective study, D – Galactosamine induced a significant rise in Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total proteins, Lipid peroxidation (LPO), Super oxide Dismutase (SOD) . Treatment of rats with different doses of leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001) altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against D - Galactosamine treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 200 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for hepatoprotective activity. Histopathological changes of liver sample were compared with that of the respective control samples. The results indicate the hepatoprotective property of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Jasminum grandiflorum exhibited a significant against D – Galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.
Author:Hemanth. N*1, Harikrishna. A1, Jayarajan2, Divya Lakshmi. D1, Himabindhu. P1, Vinodh. N1
Abstract:Formulary system is a process in which the medical staff of an institution evaluates and selects from the numerous available drug products those that are considered most efficacious, safe, and cost effective. A formulary system is a mechanism to streamline procurement activities, minimize institutional costs and optimize patient care. The team of medical staff works through a Formulary and Therapeutics Committee. In this study we initiated in developing a hospital formulary and managing at chittoor district head quarter government hospital. The various critical area included are the important of formularies, stages and steps in developing a drug formulary system and role of pharmacy. The work involved in developing stage I to IV and 19 steps to develop a formulary. The importance of therapeutic committee the plays role in patient Counselling, Drug information etc by pharmacy and therapeutic committee in the hospital formulary. By developing the Formularies we were able to address the following issues: such as ineffective or poor quality medicinal products, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and drug intervention by identifying effective and safe medications. We provide impartial drug information to counteract biased promotional activities or fill the gap where access to accurate and up-to-date information is limited. It also help in the elimination of unsafe, and support cost-effective utilization of drug budgets and improve access to essential medicines.
Author:Ashok Kumar. D1, Mrinmay Das*2, Mohanraj. P2, Arup Das2, Mastanaia. K2
Abstract:The ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity study against medically important gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymexia & Streotococcus faecalis, gram negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae & Escherichia coli and fungi like Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus niger & Candida albicans. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanolic extract was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 2, 5 and 10mg/ml in DMSO. Ciprofloxacin (5µg/ml) and Cotrimazole (25µg/ml) were used as reference control for the antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively. The results of MIC study revealed the antimicrobial activity of the extract against the tested strains of microorganisms between concentration range of 50 and 400 µg/ml. The results of zone of inhibition study revealed concentration dependant nature of the extract with better effectiveness against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. aerial parts in the treatment of various pathogenic diseases as mentioned in the ayurvedic literature.
Author:T. Charan teja*, S. Sirisha, P. Prashanthi, B. Narasimhulu
Abstract:The World Health Organization (WHO) addressed drug utilization as the marketing, distribution, prescription and use of drugs in a society, considering its consequences, either medical, social, and economic. To determine the prescribing patterns of antimicrobial agents. To study commonly prescribed antibiotics in surgery department. To identify medication related problems & medication errors. To study about rational usage of antimicrobials. Surgical Unit-1 & Surgical Unit-2 in Sri Venkateswara institute of medical sciences Tirupati. The study is planned over a 6months period . Frequently used antimicrobial agents are Ceftriaxone 50 (12.5%) and Ciprofloxacin 40 (10%) and less frequently used antimicrobial agents are Colistin 03 (0.75%) and Azithromycin 05 (1.25%). most frequently used Antimicrobial combination are Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid 15(30%) and cefoperazone + salbactum 10 (20%) and less frequently used antimicrobial combination are Imipenum + cilastatin 03 (6%). Amoxicillin clavulanate was resistant to microorganisms in most of the cases (26.6%). Study on organisms prevailing and its sensitivity pattern of AMAs in the surgical department units will help the physicians to select the proper drug choice. .
Author:Manasa. M*, Giriraj Shekar. D, Swetha. D, Rajasekhar. P, Nagarjuna. M
Abstract:Metformin is biguanide type oral hypoglycemic agent which reduces the body weight in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Metformin causes weight loss by reducing food intake. It primarily acts on the central nervous system to reduce appetite by attenuating hypothalamic AMPK activity, which decreases NPY (orexigenic) and increases POMC (anorectic) expression. It is a prospective, observational study to be conducted in RIMS hospital in the departments of General medicine. During the study period of six months, the total sample size was 78. The results obtained were significant for the metformin only used group (group A) of the males compared to the average weights of the females with P – value (P < 0.05). The study was not significant for other groups of the patients. The effects of the combined therapy of metformin and other oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas 1-2 mg/day) show the moderate weight gain. In the present study, we concluded that subjects who were treated with metformin induced weight loss. The study showed that 6 months of metformin monotherapy (500-1000 mg/day) caused a mean reduction in bodyweight of 2.34 kgs, The subjects who were treated with combination therapy (metformin + other oral hypoglycemic agents) caused moderate body weight gain 1.77 kgs. Without taking a calorie-restricted diet.
Author:Harika. K*1, D. Swetha Debnath2, M. Harikrishna1, M. Kumar, G. Venkataramana, M. Niranjan Babu3
Abstract:Microsponges are one of the novel drug delivery, which were originally developed for topical delivery of drugs. It is n unique technology recommended for the control release of macro pore bead loaded with active agent which is helpful to maintain therapeutic efficiency and there by helpful for the reduction of unwanted side effects with improved stability. These are patented polymeric delivery systems with contain porous microspheres design to entrapped active ingredients such as emollients, fragrances, essential oils , sunscreens and anti-infective, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory agents. They are usually 5-300µm in diameter. It provides control delivery of oral medication to the lower gastro intestinal tract and colon specific drug delivery system. There are a lot of marketed products available for microsponge drug delivery system. The method of preparation involves liquid- liquid suspension polymerization, quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Microsponges are used as sunscreens, anti-acne, anti inflammatory, anti fungal, anti pruritics and anti dandruff agents. They are characterized on the bases of particle size determination, scanning electron microscopy, loading Efficiency, true density and pore structure. It provides a wide range of formulating advantages. Some microsponge based products is likely to become a valuable drug delivery system for various therapeutic applications in the future
Author:M. Hari Krishna*, Samriddhi Datri, P. Mahipal, M. Kumar, Koushik Sen Guptha, Subhasis Debnath
Abstract:In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS). Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems (ODDS) are a type of NDDS which utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agent(s). The release of drug(s) from osmotic systems is independent of gastric pH & gastric motility. The release of drug(s) from osmotic systems is affected by various formulation factors such as osmotic pressure of the core component(s), solubility and size of the delivery orifice, and nature of semi permeable membrane. Different types of osmotic systems have been developed implantable & oral. This review focuses on types of ODDS and factors affecting release of drug and various formulation factors from the systems
Author:D. Lavanya*, Pranabesh Sikdar, M. Shankar, R. J. Naveen Kumar, D. Swetha, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:Vitamin c (Ascorbic Acid) is an essential nutrient in humans as it functions as a cofactor in several vital enzymatic reactions plays an important role in collagen biosynthesis, iron absorption, and immune response activation and is involved in wound healing and osteogenesis, fights against free-radical induced diseases. Brassica species are very rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, vitamin c, and minerals. It has a high content (20% or more of the daily value) of vitamin c. The main objective of this study is to determine the amount of vitamin c content present in different forms of brassica olerecea botrytis (cauliflower) florets such as dry powdered extract (maceration), boiled extract, and fresh extracts by using colorimetry. By the phytochemical screening of all the extracts it shows the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavanoids, saponins which posses many pharmacological acivities. From the colorimetric estimation of vitamin c for all the three extracts it is revealed that the aqueous crude extract (18 µg) posses more concentration of vitamin c than the boiled (5 µg) and dry extracts (3 µg).By this study it can be concluded that the intake of raw cauliflower florets that are rich in vitamin c than other boiled and dry extract will provide more beneficial effects to our body.
Author:Charumathi. S*, Lavanya. D, Harika. K, Varadharajan. K, P. Rajasekhar, Niranjan Babu. M
Abstract:Zinc is an essential and beneficial trace element in human growth; concentrations above 5mg/ml can cause a bitter astringent taste and opalescence in alkaline water. The zinc concentration of drinking water varies between 0.006 and 7mg/ml. Zinc most commonly enters the domestic water supply from the deterioration of galvanized iron and dezincification of brass. Over dose of zinc negatively influence human and animal health and over such a boundary concentrations zinc may even be toxic. So in this connection we tried an attempt to remove the zinc from water sample by using microbes as it is a ecofreindly. The efficiency of biosorption of zinc with three microbes Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Aspergillus niger were estimated. Aspergillus niger have higher capacity to accumulate zinc when compared to Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis. Hence Aspergillus niger was well suited for removal of zinc from contaminated water. However there are still many uncertainties associated with the development of treating waste water by living fungi and more future work is necessary.
Author:M. Manasa*, D. Swetha, S. Rihana begum, Ch. Manga Devi, R.J. Naveen Kumar, K. Venkatrao
Abstract:As the practice of pharmacy evolves, requiring more clinically oriented healthcare providers, Doctor of Pharmacy programs expand their training to more hospital sites to expose students to the provision of safe, effective, and economic drug therapy to patients. The need for this form of patient care becomes is essential in managing chronic illness like diabetes, hypertension, and other cardiovascular disorders. In all these conditions, the diseases are usually lifelong and with a number of co-morbidities, making polypharmacy part and parcel of the overall treatment strategy. The main objective is to maximize the clinical effects of medicines, i.e., using the most effective treatment for each type of patient; minimizing the risk of treatment-induced adverse events, i.e., monitoring the therapy course and the patient’s compliance with therapy trying to provide the best treatment alternative for the greatest number of patients
Author:D. Swetha*1, K. Harika1, B. Preetha1, C. Vamsi Krishna1, R. Puzahenthi
Abstract:Cardio protection means any activity that protects heart and preserves activities of heart and even prevents cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes coronary artery disease such as angina and myocardial infarction. Many diseases manifesting themselves in a different way actually underlie the cardiovascular problem. Herbal drugs derived from medicinal plants are known to exhibit creditable medicinal properties for the treatment of heart ailments and need to be explored to identify their potential application in prevention and therapy of human ailments. This review explains types and risk factors of CVD, different medicinal plants having cardio protective activity and mechanisms by which Artichoke showing its cardio protective activity
Author:Narasimhulu B*, Vinodh Navuluri, Shubhankar Saha, Niranjan Babu M
Abstract:Drug information service (DIS) is the service that encompasses the activities of specially trained individuals to provide accurate, unbiased, factual information, primarily in response to patient-oriented problems occurred from the Health care teams. DIS is usually provided by pharmacists in academic institutes and hospitals via face-to-face communication, letter, telephone, fax and e-mail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of drug information services provided in Chittoor district. It is a Prospective interventional study to extend the drug information services in & around govt district head quarters Hospital Chittoor. The study is planned over a 6 months period from Feb 2016 to July 2016. The quality of drug information services provided was assessed Using feedback questionnaires and guidelines from the DSE/WHO seminar respectively. Majority of the enquirers were the nurses (39.34%) and physicians (34.34%), from the primary, secondary, tertiary hospitals. Most of the questions were asked by direct access (92%). Answers to queries were most often needed one day (74%) and in most cases was answered printed material (71.5%). Most frequently asked questions were about adverse drug reactions (50.28%) followed by drug therapy (16.28%) and the purpose of the queries to update the knowledge (49.7%). Assessment of the feedback questionnaire indicated that majority of the enquirers (31.6%) found the quality of the service provided by the centre to be satisfactory. The study concludes drug information service provided by the centre improves to the need of healthcare professionals towards better patient care and to update knowledge. Upon evaluation of the feedback questionnaires, it was found that the quality of the services provided by the centre was appreciated by majority of its users.
Author:G. Mallikarjuna*1, C. Kambagiri swamy2, V. Prabhakaran2, M. Niranjan Babu1
Abstract:Rheumatism was one of the oldest known diseases of mankind affecting large population of the world. The greatest disadvantage in the presently available potent synthetic drugs lies in their toxicity, side effects and reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. The present work was aimed at evaluating Antiarthritic activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. using 0.1ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) administered at planter surface of the left hind paw. The assessment of antiarthritic activity was done by estimating parameters such as paw volume, paw diameter along with serum biochemical marker levels, tissue antioxidants, radiological and histological examination of joints using standard operating procedures. The concurrent administration of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. showed a significant restoration of abnormal levels of various parameters and biochemical markers which was supported by radiological and histological examinations of joints indicating anti-arthritic activity of plant extract. The effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. was compared with standard drug, diclofenac sodium at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg b.wt.
Author:D. Lavanya*, S. Charumathi , M. Niranjan babu.
Abstract:Chalcones are a class of natural open chain flavonoids that are linked by a three carbon spacer between two aromatic rings. Chemically, chalcones are 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones in which two aromatic rings are joined by a three carbon bridge having a cabonyl moiety and α,β unsaturation. The chemistry of chalcones has generated intensive scientific studies throughout the world. Especially interest has been focused on the synthesis and biological activities of chalcones. The aim of this review to give summary of methods for synthesis of chalcones and its activities. Both chalcones and their heterocyclic derivatives have a number of pharmacological activities such as anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, anticancer, ant mitotic, antileishmanial, anti-malarial, ant tubercular, antiviral etc. This review mainly focuses on recent efforts made on the synthesis of biologically active chalcone derivative and screening their pharmacological activity
Author:A Deevan Paul*
Abstract:The application of nanotechnology in areas of drug delivery and therapy (ie, nanotherapeutics) is envisioned to have a great impact on public health. The ability of nanotherapeutics to provide targeted drug delivery, to improve drug solubility, extend drug half-life, improve a drugs therapeutic index, and reduce drugs immunogenicity has resulted in the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases. A heart disease remains the major cause of death in males and females, emphasizing the need for novel strategies to improve patient treatment and survival. In this review, the clinical impact of cardiovascular disease and the pathophysiology of different subsets of the disease are described. Potential pathological targets for therapy are introduced and promising advances in nanotherapeutics cardiovascular applications involving liposomal platforms are presented
Author:Subhashis Debnath*, R. Sukesh, R. Pugahenthi
Abstract:Prodrug refers to a pharmacological inactive compound that is converted to an active drug by a metabolic biotransformation. It is observed that about 10% of the drugs approved worldwide is classified as prodrugs. They are designed in order to improve the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and/or pharmacokinetic properties of pharmacologically potent compounds. This article describes the basic functional groups that are required to prodrug design, and highlights the major applications of the prodrug strategy, including the ability to improve oral absorption and aqueous solubility, increase lipophilicity, enhance active transport, as well as achieve site-selective delivery
Author:Sireesha. R*, S. Rubesh Kumar, S. Murugan, P. Vineela Ruth Madhuri, Subhashish Debnath, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate method has been developed for the estimation of Deferasirox in API and formulation by UV spectrophotometric method. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator. Its main use is to reduce receiving long term blood transfusions. A spectrophotometric method was developed using measurement of the amount of UV radiation (190 - 380 nm) radiation absorbed by a substance in solution. UV spectrophotometric method is useful to measure the number of conjugated double bonds and also aromatic conjugation with the various molecules. From the spectra, λmax of Deferasirox was found to be 319 nm and was selected as an analytical wavelength and the calibration curve was constructed by plotting concentration Vs absorbance. Deferasirox was linear with the concentration range of 5 – 30 g/ ml at 319 nm. The optical parameters were calculated and the developed method was validated using ICH guidelines.
Author:A. Deevan Paul
Abstract:Liposomes have been widely investigated since 1970 as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. As a result, numerous improvements have been made, thus making this technology potentially useful for the treatment of certain diseases in the clinics. The success of liposomes as drug carrier has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. The current pharmaceutical preparations of liposome-based therapeutic system mainly result from our understanding of lipid-drug interactions and liposome disposition mechanisms. The insight gained from clinical use of liposome drug delivery systems can now be integrated to design liposomes that can be targeted on tissues, cells or intracellular compartments with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membranes.
Author:P. C. Jayanth*, Prasanna Kumar Kar, P. Rajasekhar
Abstract:The medicinal plants have been used as primary health care throughout the world and it is still value enough for the development of new derivative of commercial drug. The medicinal plant of Pithecellobium dulce was collected from nearby village. The Leaf of Pithecellobium dulce belonging to family Fabaceae has been reported to be useful in treatment of gastric ulcer. In pharmacological screening the effect of different extracts i.e. aqueous extract and ethyl acetate fraction (250 and 500mg/kg) p. o. of fruits of Pithecellobium dulce Was evaluated for their antiulcer profile by using ethanol induced models using Wistar albino rats. The results were comparable to that of standard drug (Omeprazole). Treatment with aqueous extract of fruits of Pithecellobium dulce. Significantly showed the antiulcer activity as compared to control and other extracts. The histopathological study of stomach also supported the above results. The phytochemical analysis carried out revealed the presence of carbohydrates, Proteins, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Saponins in the aqueous extracts, while Ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of Proteins, Flavonoids, Glycosides and Saponins
Author:Sireesha. R*, S. Rubesh Kumar, S. Murugan, P. Vineela Ruth Madhuri, Subhashish Debnath, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate method has been developed for the estimation of Deferasirox in API and formulation by visible spectrophotometric method. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator. Its main use is to reduce receiving long term blood transfusions. A colorimetric method was developed using Gibbs reagent is a 2, 6 Dichloro-p-benzoquionone -4- chlorimide. Drugs like pyridoxine, thymol, Deferasirox contain para free phenolic group that reacts with this reagent and formed a coloured complex which can be estimated by colorimetrically. The positive colour is obtained in alkaline pH(borate buffer (pH 9.4) and the complex was showing maximum absorbance at 658nm. The optical parameters were calculated and the developed method was validated using ICH guidelines.
Author: P. C. Jayanth*, Prasanna Kumar Kar, M. Niranjan Babu
Abstract:Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases. Herbs are natural products and their chemical composition varies depending on several factors and therefore varying from people to people, from energetic decoctions to the use of herbal extracts following Western methodologies of mainstream medicine. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-Hyperlipidemic activity potentiality of Hydro Alcoholic extract of Callistemon viminalis leaves against the Triamcinolone induced Hyperlipidemia in albino rats. The test extract was administered in the dose of 250mg/kg for 14days. Daily oral treatment reduced the Plasma Cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT and increased the HDL Levels.
Author:Chandra sekhar. R*1, Venkataramana. G, Niranjan babu. M
Abstract:A high performance of liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of impurity in ketorolac tromethamine. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a phenomenex C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, 5µ column at a detector wavelength of 320 nm and a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The mobile phase was composed of phosphate buffer ( 0.29 ml of ortho phosphoric acid (88%) in 500 ml of double distilled water) and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v). The retention of 2,3-dibromo-5-benzoyl pyrrole was 11.90 min. This method can be used for the routine quality control and assay of starting material (2 ,3-dibromo-5-benzoyl pyrrole) in ketorolac tromethamine in pharmaceutical preparation.
Author:Satish. S1 and Abdul Kareem. M*1
Abstract:The aim of the present study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Ruta chalepensis Linn. in various experimental animal models. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by using two animal models. The degree of anticonvulsant activity was determined by measuring the onset and duration of seizure in strychnine induced convulsion and Isoniazid induced convulsion models. Animals treated with all three doses of RCL (250,500 and 750mg/kg) witnessed a significant delay in the onset on seizure in SIC & IIC which was significant when compared with control. The study revealed that the Aqueous leaf extract of Ruta chalepensis Linn. Posses significant anticonvulsant activity.
Author:Satish. S1 and Mohammed Nuhman*1
Abstract:The aim of the present study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of the aqueous extract of the resin of “Vateria indica” using various experimental animal models. Anti-ulcer activity was evaluated by using two animal models. The degree of antiulcer activity was determined by measuring the ulcer index in Ethanol induced and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Vateria indica resin extract in the higher dose (500mg/kg) witnessed a significant dose dependant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcer and indomethacin induced gastric ulcer models. It also produced a significant (**p≤0.01) reduction in the ulcer index on higher dose (500mg/kg) as well as standard (Ranitidine) treated groups. The study revealed that Vateria indica Linn. resins extract posses significant anti-ulcer activity.
Author:Agilandeswari. D*1 and Sajani Raju2
Abstract:The formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Metoprolol tartrate buccoadhesive tablets was carried out. The preformulation studies ensured a satisfactory purity of the drug candidate and its compatibility with sodium alginate and other excipients. Linearity in the calibration of Metoprolol tartrate was noticed between 1-25µg/ml ranges. Sixteen batches of Metoprolol tartrate bucco adhesive tablets were prepared (BT1 to BT16) and the effect of drug to polymer (sodium alginate) ratio, backing layer, compressional force, compression time, average weight, friability, drug content, muco adhesive strength and in-vitro drug release were evaluated. From the results obtained batch BT5 (1:2 drug polymer ratio) was selected as an ideal batch, as it exhibited a maximum mucoadhesive strength with minimum friability. A batch prepared with 1:2 drug to polymer ratio with 40mg ethylcellulose as backing layer, compressed at 6 tonnes/cm2 pressures for 10 seconds compressional time showed 13.3g mucoadhesive strength and 80.6% in-vitro drug release over a period of 6 hours. It was selected to be an ideal batch. The ideal batch of compressed buccoadhesive tablets was stable with respect to its physicochemical and in-vitro drug release performance over a period of two months at room temperature
Author:Subhashis Debnath*1, Niranjan Babu. M1, Thulasi Ram. D1, Chakradharnath. T1, Harika. K1, Mounika Goud. V1
Abstract:Terbinafine HCl, an antifungal drug has poor water solubility. Widely used topical terbinafine HCl ointment, cream, lotion has many disadvantages. They have very sticky causing uneasiness to the patient when applied. Moreover they also have lesser spreading coefficient and need to apply with rubbing. In the present study, an emulgel system composed of water in oil emulsion was designed and developed to enhance the availability and efficacy of antifungal drug Terbinafine HCl when used topically. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% concentrations of carbopol 934 as gelling agent were used to formulate the emulgels. Formulated emulgels were evaluated for physical appearance, viscosity, spreadability, pH etc. The effect of concentration of gelling agent on the in vitro release of terbinafine HCl was also studied. It has seen that formulation F1 which contains 0.5% w/w of carbopol shows 97.87% drug release, whereas formulation F2 shows 94.697 % drug release after one hour. The release of the drug from the emulgel formulation follows Fickian law.